WEFOUNDEncyclopedia of Union College history


Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

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The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems humanity is confronted with, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. It is a response to the fact that many institutions are trapped in inadequate policy metaphors.

The problems, strategies, values, etc presented in the Encyclopedia are those recognized by the international organizations profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations . It attempts to present the world as people experience it, whether negatively or positively.

An unusual feature of the Encyclopedia is the inclusion of specific feedback loops and cycles through which problems reinforce and sustain each other. This shifts the level of attention from isolated problems to problem cycles, and by implication, to sustainable strategy cycles via serendipitous relationships between strategies.

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems humanity is confronted with, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. It is a response to the fact that many institutions are trapped in inadequate policy metaphors.

The problems, strategies, values, etc presented in the Encyclopedia are those recognized by the international organizations profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations . It attempts to present the world as people experience it, whether negatively or positively.

An unusual feature of the Encyclopedia is the inclusion of specific feedback loops and cycles through which problems reinforce and sustain each other. This shifts the level of attention from isolated problems to problem cycles, and by implication, to sustainable strategy cycles via serendipitous relationships between strategies.

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political federation consisting of twenty-seven member countries that make common policy in several areas. The EU was created in 1993 with the signing of the Treaty on European Union, commonly referred to as the Maastricht Treaty, but it was preceded by various European organizations that contributed to the development of the EU. The EU represents the latest and most successful in a series of efforts to unify Europe , including many attempts to achieve unity through force of arms, such as those seen in the campaigns of Napoleon Bonaparte and World War II .

Despite this initial success, participation in the EEC was limited to Belgium , France , Germany , Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands . Immediately following the creation of the EEC a rival trade confederation known as the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was created by Austria , Britain , Denmark , Finland , Norway , Portugal , Sweden , and Switzerland . Although its goals were less comprehensive than those of the EEC, the existence of the EFTA delayed European economic and political unity.

The EU originally had twelve member nations: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In 1993, the European Council, meeting in Copenhagen , Denmark, determined the criteria for joining the EU. These requirements, known as the Copenhagen criteria, included: (1) a stable democracy which respects human rights and the rule of law; (2) a functioning market economy capable of competition within the EU; and (3) the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. The European Council has the responsibility for evaluating a country's fulfillment of these criteria.

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems humanity is confronted with, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. It is a response to the fact that many institutions are trapped in inadequate policy metaphors.

The problems, strategies, values, etc presented in the Encyclopedia are those recognized by the international organizations profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations . It attempts to present the world as people experience it, whether negatively or positively.

An unusual feature of the Encyclopedia is the inclusion of specific feedback loops and cycles through which problems reinforce and sustain each other. This shifts the level of attention from isolated problems to problem cycles, and by implication, to sustainable strategy cycles via serendipitous relationships between strategies.

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political federation consisting of twenty-seven member countries that make common policy in several areas. The EU was created in 1993 with the signing of the Treaty on European Union, commonly referred to as the Maastricht Treaty, but it was preceded by various European organizations that contributed to the development of the EU. The EU represents the latest and most successful in a series of efforts to unify Europe , including many attempts to achieve unity through force of arms, such as those seen in the campaigns of Napoleon Bonaparte and World War II .

Despite this initial success, participation in the EEC was limited to Belgium , France , Germany , Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands . Immediately following the creation of the EEC a rival trade confederation known as the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was created by Austria , Britain , Denmark , Finland , Norway , Portugal , Sweden , and Switzerland . Although its goals were less comprehensive than those of the EEC, the existence of the EFTA delayed European economic and political unity.

The EU originally had twelve member nations: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In 1993, the European Council, meeting in Copenhagen , Denmark, determined the criteria for joining the EU. These requirements, known as the Copenhagen criteria, included: (1) a stable democracy which respects human rights and the rule of law; (2) a functioning market economy capable of competition within the EU; and (3) the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. The European Council has the responsibility for evaluating a country's fulfillment of these criteria.

Labor unions in the United States are representatives of workers in many industries recognized under US labor law . Their activity today centers on collective bargaining over wages, benefits, and working conditions for their membership, and on representing their members in disputes with management over violations of contract provisions. Larger unions also typically engage in lobbying activities and electioneering at the state and federal level.

Most unions in the United States are aligned with one of two larger umbrella organizations: the AFL-CIO created in 1955, and the Change to Win Federation which split from the AFL-CIO in 2005. Both advocate policies and legislation on behalf of workers in the United States and Canada, and take an active role in politics. The AFL-CIO is especially concerned with global trade issues.

In 2016, there were 14.6 million members in the U.S., down from 17.7 million in 1983. The percentage of workers belonging to a union in the United States (or total labor union "density") was 10.7%, compared to 20.1% in 1983. [1] [2] Union membership in the private sector has fallen under 7% [3] — levels not seen since 1932. From a global perspective, the density in 2013 was 7.7% in France, 18.1% in Germany, 27.1% in Canada, and 85.5% in Iceland, which is currently highest in the world. [2]

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems humanity is confronted with, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. It is a response to the fact that many institutions are trapped in inadequate policy metaphors.

The problems, strategies, values, etc presented in the Encyclopedia are those recognized by the international organizations profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations . It attempts to present the world as people experience it, whether negatively or positively.

An unusual feature of the Encyclopedia is the inclusion of specific feedback loops and cycles through which problems reinforce and sustain each other. This shifts the level of attention from isolated problems to problem cycles, and by implication, to sustainable strategy cycles via serendipitous relationships between strategies.

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political federation consisting of twenty-seven member countries that make common policy in several areas. The EU was created in 1993 with the signing of the Treaty on European Union, commonly referred to as the Maastricht Treaty, but it was preceded by various European organizations that contributed to the development of the EU. The EU represents the latest and most successful in a series of efforts to unify Europe , including many attempts to achieve unity through force of arms, such as those seen in the campaigns of Napoleon Bonaparte and World War II .

Despite this initial success, participation in the EEC was limited to Belgium , France , Germany , Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands . Immediately following the creation of the EEC a rival trade confederation known as the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was created by Austria , Britain , Denmark , Finland , Norway , Portugal , Sweden , and Switzerland . Although its goals were less comprehensive than those of the EEC, the existence of the EFTA delayed European economic and political unity.

The EU originally had twelve member nations: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In 1993, the European Council, meeting in Copenhagen , Denmark, determined the criteria for joining the EU. These requirements, known as the Copenhagen criteria, included: (1) a stable democracy which respects human rights and the rule of law; (2) a functioning market economy capable of competition within the EU; and (3) the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. The European Council has the responsibility for evaluating a country's fulfillment of these criteria.

Labor unions in the United States are representatives of workers in many industries recognized under US labor law . Their activity today centers on collective bargaining over wages, benefits, and working conditions for their membership, and on representing their members in disputes with management over violations of contract provisions. Larger unions also typically engage in lobbying activities and electioneering at the state and federal level.

Most unions in the United States are aligned with one of two larger umbrella organizations: the AFL-CIO created in 1955, and the Change to Win Federation which split from the AFL-CIO in 2005. Both advocate policies and legislation on behalf of workers in the United States and Canada, and take an active role in politics. The AFL-CIO is especially concerned with global trade issues.

In 2016, there were 14.6 million members in the U.S., down from 17.7 million in 1983. The percentage of workers belonging to a union in the United States (or total labor union "density") was 10.7%, compared to 20.1% in 1983. [1] [2] Union membership in the private sector has fallen under 7% [3] — levels not seen since 1932. From a global perspective, the density in 2013 was 7.7% in France, 18.1% in Germany, 27.1% in Canada, and 85.5% in Iceland, which is currently highest in the world. [2]

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:


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